Georgia in Russian Foreign Policy: Implications for Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Communication and Social Science, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Regional Studies, ECO Faculty, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran Iran.


Georgia has experienced many developments since independence because of the presence of Russia and the West in this country, which has played an important role in making a balance of power between Russia and the West. Therefore, examining the factors that have made Georgia's role important will help to identify the issue. So, the main question in this article is what is the role of Georgia in the balance of power between Russia and the West and its impact on Iran's national security? Our hypothesis is, the role of Georgia is important in the balance of power between Russia and the West due to its unique geopolitical position and its pro-western policies, and this orientation has an important impact on Iran's national security. The hypothesis has been investigated according to the assumptions of Kenneth Waltz's balance of power theory and Mackinder’s geopolitical theory. Findings show that Georgia, as a small country, has felt threatened by Russia and has tried to join the Western structure, which has highlighted Georgia's role in the balance of power between the two sides. The West has used the energy resources of the Caspian Sea to supply its energy and Georgia is playing a key role in this process, which jeopardizes Russia's policy of monopolizing Europe's energy supply. Thus, the Western military presence in Georgia and Russia's monopoly policy to supply energy to the European Union has a negative impact on Iran's national security. The research method is descriptive-explanatory.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

جایگاه گرجستان در سیاست خارجی روسیه: پیامدهای آن برای ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • رحمت حاجی مینه 1
  • امیر محمد مغانی 2
1 استادیار روابط بین الملل، گروه ارتباطات و علوم اجتماعی، واحد تهران-شرق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
2 گروه مطالعات منطقه ای، دانشکده اکو، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

گرجستان از زمان استقلال به دلیل حضور روسیه و غرب در این کشور که نقش مهمی در ایجاد موازنه قدرت بین روسیه و غرب داشته است، تحولات زیادی را تجربه کرده است.پس بررسی عواملی که نقش گرجستان را مهم کرده است، به شناسایی موضوع کمک می کند. بنابراین ، سوال اصلی مقاله این است که نقش گرجستان در توازن قدرت بین روسیه و غرب و تأثیر آن بر امنیت ملی ایران چیست؟ فرضیه اصلی این است که نقش گرجستان در توازن قوا بین روسیه و غرب به دلیل موقعیت ژئوپلیتیکی منحصر به فرد و سیاست های طرفدار غرب آن مهم است و این جهت گیری تأثیر مهمی بر امنیت ملی ایران دارد. این فرضیه بر اساس مفروضات نظریه توازن قدرت کنت والتز و نظریه ژئوپلیتیک مکیندر بررسی شده است. یافته ها نشان می دهد که گرجستان ، به عنوان یک کشور کوچک ، از سوی روسیه احساس خطر کرده و سعی کرده است به ساختار غربی بپیوندد که این امر نقش گرجستان را در موازنه قدرت بین دو طرف برجسته کرده است. غرب از منابع انرژی دریای خزر برای تامین انرژی خود استفاده کرده است و گرجستان نقش کلیدی را در این روند ایفا می کند که این امر سیاست روسیه در انحصار عرضه انرژی اروپا را به خطر می اندازد. لذا حضور نظامی غرب در گرجستان و سیاست انحصاری روسیه در تامین انرژی اتحادیه اروپا بر امنیت ملی ایران تأثیر منفی می گذارد. روش تحقیق توصیفی- تبیینی و روش گردآوری داده ها کتابخانه ای است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • ایران
  • روسیه
  • گرجستان
  • موازنه قوا
  • امنیت
Ahmadi, J., Zargar, A., & Soltany, F. (2020). Comparative Study of the Foreign Policy of the Republic of Georgia and the Republic of Armenia; Tendency to the West or the East (2008–2020). International Studies Journal (ISJ, 17(2), 53–75.
Amirahmadian, B., & Asgary, H. (2012). Realization of Iran-Georgia Relations Subsequent to Georgia’s Declaration of Independence on the Basis of theories of International Relation. Journal of Central Eurasia Studies, 5(10), 1–20.
Andersen, M. S. (2018). Balance of Power. The Encyclopedia of Diplomacy, 1–12.
Balla, E. (2013, April). Turkish and Iranian interests and policies in the South Caucasus. The Norwegian Peace building Resource Centre. https://www.
Bank, A. D. (2016). Realizing the Urban Potential in Georgia: National Urban Assessment (Country Sector and Thematic Assessments). Asian Development Bank.
Chitadze, N. (2012). Geopolitical interests of Iran in South Caucasus and Georgian-Iranian relations. Journal of Social Sciences, 1(2), 5–12.
Chowdhury, S. K. (2015). THE HEARTLAND THEORY OF SIR HALFORD JOHN MACKINDER: JUSTIFICATION OF FOREIGN POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA IN CENTRAL ASIA | Journal of Liberty and International Affairs. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs.
ČIžik, T., & Novák, P. (2015, January 1). North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). ResearchGate.
Coffey, L. (2019, June 12). Creativity and bold leadership needed for Georgia’s NATO membership. The Heritage Foundation. defense/ report/ creativity- and- bold- leadership- needed-georgias-nato-membership
Cronin, B. (2019). North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In World Book Student. Retrieved fromhttps:// worldbookonline. com/ student- new/#/ article/ home/394080
Daniels, K. K. (2020, July 14). What is the heartland and why is it important? Association of Professional Futurists. 1763106/ 338663/What-is-the-Heartland-and-why-is-it-important
Ebrahimi, S., & Babri, N. (2017). Russia and NATO: From Strategic Partnership to Strategic Competition. Central Asia and The Caucasus Journal, 22(96), 1–24.
Ghorbani Nezhad, R., Hashemi, M., & Yazdan Panah Daro, K. (2021). The Impact of the Neighborhood Policy of the Russian Federation on Iran’s Regionalist Approach in the Caucasus. New Attitudes in Human Geography, 13(3), 944–956.
Ghorbani Sheikh Neshin, A., Man’am, R., & Simber, R. (2018). Russian influence and the challenge of Western hegemony in the Black Sea basin. Quarterly Journal of International Relations Studies, 11(42), 157–184.
Heydari, G. H. (2011). The geopolitical position of the Caucasus in the politics of regional and supra-regional powers. Quarterly Journal of Political and International Research, 3(7), 207–245.
Hillison, J. R. (2018). The Relevance of the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization for the United States in the 21st Century (Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) Report 3657 ed.). Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.
Ingle, G. (2020). Georgia at a Crossroads: Balancing Western Aspirations, Russian Influences & Internal Divisions. Dickinson College Honors Theses. Paper 369.
IRNA. (2018, October 26). Bolton met with Georgian officials. Retrieved from IRNA: (In Persian)
IRNA. (2021, June 16). Is it time to realize the Trans-Caspian pipeline project?. Retrieved from IRNA: (In Persian)
Kakachia, K. (2013, March). Georgia: identity, foreign policy and the politics of a “Euro-Atlantic orientation. The Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre. https:// c6 d499e 1515b35. pdf
Kakachia, K., & Minesashvili, S. (2015). Identity politics: Exploring Georgian foreign policy behavior. Journal of Eurasian Studies, 6(2), 171–180. https://
Kapanadze, S. (2014, June). Georgia’s Vulnerability to Russian Pressure Points. European foreign council relation. https:// georgias_ vulnerability_to_russian_pressure_points312/
Kazemzadeh, H. (2016). The Overview of Iran & Caucasus Ties. Geowel Research & ISSICEU: Tbilisi, Georgia
Koolaee, E. (2012). Myths of the Colored Revelution. Mizan.
Koolaee, E. (2017). Politics and Government in Central Eurasia. Samt.
Koolaee, E., & Goudarzi, M. (2014). Caspian Sea Challenges and Prospects. Mizan.
Koolaee, E., & Rezaie, M. (2017). External factors affecting the under development of Iran-Georgia relations. Human Geography Research, 49(4), 935–950.
Kuimova, A. Wezeman, S, T. (2018). Georgia and Black Sea Security. SIPRI Background Paper
Korteweg, R. (2018). Energy as a Tool of Foreign Policy of Authoritarian States, in Particular Russia. European Parliament.
Matsaberidze, D. (2015). Russia vs. EU/US through Georgia and Ukraine. Connections: The Quarterly Journal, 14(2), 77–86. 10. 11610/ connections.14.2.06
Mnistry Defence of Georgia. (2018). Strategic Defense Review 2017–2020.
Nexon, D. H. (2009). The Balance of Power in the Balance. World Politics, 61(2), 330–359.
Nilsson, N. (2021). Between Russia’s ‘Hybrid’ strategy and Western Ambiguity: Assessing Georgia’s Vulnerabilities. The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 34(1), 50–68.
Official website of the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (2017, July 13).  Iran welcomes deepening ties with Georgia/Iran rail network can link Georgia with Persian Gulf. Retrieved from: EN/98891
Parent, J. M., & Rosato, S. (2015). Balancing in Neorealism. International Security, 40(2), 51–86.
Paul, A., & Shiriyev, Z. (2017, September). Georgia’s future: Between Euro-Atlantic aspirations and geopolitical realities. European policy Centre.
Popovic, N. (2020, February). The Energy Relationship Between Russia and the European Union. E- International Relation. 2020/ 02/24/the-energy-relationship-between-russia-and-the-european-union/
Rah Nejat, M., & Kabiri, H. (2018). Factors Affecting the Divergence of Relations between the Iran and Georgia (2000–2016). World Politics, 7(1), 139–166.
Samoudi, A. R., Aghaii, S. D., & Mosavi, S. M. (2010). America and Russia, competition and conflict. International Relations Studies, 3(12), 29–63.
Shafie, N., & Rezaie, M. (2011). Russia-Georgia War: Causes and Determining Factors. Central Eurasia Studies, 4(9), 39–58.
Shirazi, H. A., & Naderi, Z. (2011). Confrontation of Russian and American foreign policy in Georgia. Research Letter of International Relations, 3(13), 1–24.
Shirkhani, A., Mir Ashrafi, S. N., & Kiani, D. (2018). Comparative Study on America and Policies Relating to Energy Security in Southern Caucasia. Scientific Quarterly of International Relations, 11(43), 173–206.
Simpson, A. W. (2018, February). Realism, Small States and Neutrality. E-International Relations.
Smolnik, F. (2020). The strategic partnership between Georgia and the United States: vision wanted. (SWP Research Paper, 15/2020). Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik -SWP- Deutsches Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit.
Sun, M. (2014, February). Balance of Power Theory in Today’s International System. E-International Relations. balance-of-power-theory-in-todays-international-system/
Tabatabai, S. M., & Fathi, M. J. (2015). The evolution of the concept of security in NATO after the Cold War based on the Copenhagen School. Quarterly Journal of Strategic Globalization Studies, 5(14), 7–42.
Taremi, D., & Mohammad Alipour, F. (2020). NATO position in US post-Cold War strategy plan (with emphasis on Middle East). Political Strategy Quarterly, 4(12), 41–66.
Tsurtsumia, t. (2015). Electricity Cooperation Opportunities in the South Caucasus: The Role of Georgia. Energy Charter Secretariat Knowledge Centre.
Uppal, S., National Council of Educational Research and Training (India), & National Council of Educational Research and Training (India). (2007). Contemporary world politics. National Council of Educational Research and Training.
Vaezi, M. (2009). Consequences of the Georgia crisis. Strategy Quarterly, 18(51), 7–39.
Vaezzadeh, H. (2016). The place of Mackinder’s geopolitical theory in British world politics. Quarterly of Politics, 46(2), 531–555.
Varij Kazemi, M. (2020, November 27). Georgia’s geopolitics amid tensions and competition over energy. International Center for Peace Studies. (In Persian)
Weiss, A., & Zabanova, Y. (2017, July). The South Caucasus and Iran in the Post-Sanctions era. German Institute for International and Security Affairs. https:// 2017C24_ wis_ zbv.pdf
Welt, C. (2021, June). Georgia: Background and U.S. policy (No. 15). Congressional Research Service. product/ pdf/R/R45307/15
Zagorski, A. (2019). Russia and NATO in the 1990s. In S. Kristina, & D. S. Hamilton, Open Door: NATO and Euro-Atlantic Security after the Cold War. Washington, DC: Foreign policy institute.
Zargar, A., & Sayad, S. (2016). The importance of Central Eurasia in the geopolitical rivalries between the great powers. Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 12(36), 169–196.
Zibakalam, S., Akhondi, H., & Kiani, A. N. (2014). America and Its Influence on Iran in Achievement of the Goals in the Caucasus (Case Study: Republic of Azerbaijan). Central Eurasia Studies, 81(100), 7–1. 10.22059/jcep.2014.51757