From Strategic Similarity to Tactical Differences: Iran and the 2020 US Presidential Election

Document Type : Original Article

Author

Ph.D. of International Relations, University of Tehran

Abstract

The US presidential election has always been influenced by the competition of candidates in the context of explaining domestic and foreign policy issues and providing solutions to overcome the crises ahead. During the election campaign in the field of foreign policy, several issues are raised. These include threats from Russia, China, North Korea, and the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the present article, the issue of Iran in the 2020 US presidential election has been examined in two levels: strategic imagery and tactical approaches. The question of the present study is what are the similarities and differences between the issue of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the foreign policy of Biden and Trump during the election campaign at both strategic and tactical levels? In response to this question, the following research hypothesis is proposed. In Biden and Trump's campaign policies at the level of strategic explanation, the Islamic Republic of Iran is in a similar situation in terms of being at the macro level of security threats, but at the level of tactics and methods of dealing, Trump seeks to score points all at once in the form of pressure policy. It was maximal, and Biden sought to take advantage of transatlantic multilateralism and gradual and gradual scoring by criticizing Trump's approach. The data collection method in the present study is documentary and the analysis method is descriptive-descriptive.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [فارسی]

از تشابه راهبردی تا تفاوت تاکتیکی: مسئله ایران و انتخابات 2020 ایالات متحده

Author [فارسی]

  • امیر عباسی خوشکار
دکتری روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه تهران

Keywords [فارسی]

  • تحریم‎های ایران
  • مذاکرات هسته‎ای
  • انتخابات ریاست جمهوری ایالات متحده
  • فشار حداکثری
Jahanian, Shahab and Islami, Saeed, 1399, A Comparative Study of US National Security Strategies in the 21st Century, Quarterly Journal of Strategic Studies, Twenty-Third Year No. 1, 87, Spring. (In Persian)
Hosseini, Mehdi, 1398, Trump and the Necessity of Rebuilding the International Order of Liberal Democracy, Foreign Policy Quarterly, Thirty-third year No. 1, 129 consecutive, Spring. (In Persian)
Dehshiar, Hossein and Nourani, Amirsina, 1399, Donald Trump's Economic Nationalism and the Network Approach in American Foreign Policy, Quarterly Journal of International Relations Studies, 49, Spring. (In Persian)
Rahimi, Raouf, 1398, Trump Nationalism in the Context of the Jackson Tradition and Its Impact on Iran-US Tensions, Quarterly Journal of World Politics, Year 8, Issue 3, 29, Fall. (In Persian)
Saeed Karami, Amir and Mousavi, Abdolazim, 1398, Components and geopolitical consequences of Trump's foreign policy against the Islamic Republic of Iran, International Geopolitical Quarterly, Year 15, Issue 3, Series 55, Fall. (In Persian)
Abdollahi Nejad, Alireza and Omid, Ahmad, 1399, Study of the structure and manner of news coverage in international news televisions, New Media Studies, 22 consecutives, Summer. (In Persian)
Mousavi, Hamed and Razavi, Salman, 1399, The Impact of American Thoughts on the Trump Administration's Foreign Policy Towards Iran's Regional Presence, Security Horizons Quarterly, 48th, Fall. (In Persian)
Nowruzpour, Mohammad Reza and Mohammad Alipour, Farideh, 1398, US Digital Diplomacy vis-a-vis Iran during Obama's presidency, Journal of New Media Studies, 18 consecutives, Summer. (In Persian)
Nouri, Vahid and Hosseini, Hassan, 1398, Individualism in American Foreign Policy in the Donald Trump Era: Results and Consequences, Quarterly Journal of International Relations Studies, 47th issue, Fall. (In Persian)
Vakili, Farhad, & Keyvan Hosseini, Asghar, 1400, A Comparative Study of American Foreign Policy Strategy (2020-2009): From Obama's Realistic-Software Strategy to a Realistic-Software-Trump Strategy, Soft Power Studies Quarterly, 24, Spring. (In Persian)
A national security strategy for a new century, 1999, THE WHITE HOUSE DECEMBER. See to: https://clintonwhitehouse4.archives.gov/ media/ pdf/nssr-1299.pdf
Bartley, Adam,2020, US Foreign Policy and China: Security Challenges During the Bush, Obama, and Trump Administration, Edinburgh University Press.
Beigon, Rubrick,2019, US Power in Latin America: Renewing Hegemony, Routledge.
Blackwill, Robert,2020, The End of World Order and American Foreign Policy, Council Special Report No. 86 May 2020.
Burns, William and Sullivan, Jake,2019, It’s Time to Talk to Iran, see to: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/14/opinion/iran-nuclear-deal.html
Debate transcript: Trump, Biden final presidential debate moderated by Kristen Welker,2020, see to: https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/ elections/ 2020/10/23/ debate- transcript- trump- biden- final- presidential- debate- nashville/ 3740152001/
Detrow,Scott,2020, Why Biden's National Security Adviser Plans To Focus On The U.S. Middle Class, see to: https://www.npr.org/sections/biden-transition-updates/2020/12/30/951280373/ why- bidens- national- security-adviser- plans-to-focus-on-the-u-s-middle-class
Donald Trump & Joe Biden 1st Presidential Debate Transcript 2020, see to: https:// www. rev. com/ blog/transcripts/donald-trump-joe-biden-1st-presidential- debate-transcript-2020
Drew, Dennis,1988, Making strategy an introduction to national security processes and problem, Air university press.
Foreign Threats to the 2020 US Federal Elections,2020, National Intelligence Council, see to: https://www.dni.gov/files/ODNI/documents/ assessments/ ICA-declass-16MAR21.pdf
Forgey, Quint,2019, Biden slams Trump's Iran strategy as a 'self-inflicted disaster', see to: https://www.politico.com/story/2019/06/20/joe-biden-trump-iran-1372607
Geranmayeh, Ellie,2020, Renewing Transatlantic Strategy on Iran, Atlantic Council, see to: https:// www. atlanticcouncil. org/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2020/11/ Transatlantic-Strategy-Iran-IB.pdf
Hanson, Davis,2019, The Case for Trump, Basic Books.
Hastedt, Glenn,2020, American Foreign Policy: Past, Present, and Future, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Hennigan, W,2018, Iran Sanctions Test U.S. Diplomatic Power, see to: https:// time. com/ 5448792/ iran-sanctions- american- diplomatic-power/? utm_ source= twitter. com&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=social-share-article
Iran Sanctions,2021, Congressional Research Service, see to: https://sgp.fas.org/ crs/mideast/RS20871.pdf
James, C,2018, After the Deal: A New Iran Strategy, see to: https://www. heritage.org/defense/event/after-the-deal-new-iran-strategy
Juneau, T,2019, The Enduring Constraints on Iran's Power after the Nuclear Deal, Political Science, No.2.
Kuzmarov, Jeremy,2019, Obama's Unending Wars: Fronting the Foreign Policy of the Permanent Warfare State, Clarity Press.
Leffler, Melvyn, 2006, Remembering George Kennan Lessons for Today?, United States Institute of Peace, see to: https://www.files.ethz.ch/ isn/ 39280/ 2006_december_sr180.pdf
Macfarland, KT,2019, Revolution: Trump, Washington and "We the People", Post Hill Press.
Mcglinchey, Stephen, International Relations Theory, 2017, Bristol, England.
Mike Pence, Kamala Harris discuss,2020, see to: https://www. Lamaruniversity press. com/2020/ 10/ mike- pence,- kamala- harris- discuss- pandemic,- economy,- supreme-court-in-vp-debate.php
Parry, Mattew,2020, Understanding US Presidential elections, European Parliamentary Research Service, see to: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/ RegData/etudes/BRIE/2020/659291/EPRS_BRI(2020)659291_EN.pdf
Pence vs. Harris: Four takeaways from the only VP debate,2020, see to: https:// www.nbcnews.com/politics/2020-election/pence-vs-harris-four-takeaways-only-vp-debate-n1242579
Quinn, Colm,2021, Western Powers Wary of Iran’s Nuclear Commitment, see to: https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/09/09/iran-nuclear-deal-vienna-raisi-blinken/
Read the full transcript of vice presidential debate between Mike Pence and Kamala Harris,2020, see to: https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/ politics/ elections/2020/10/08/vice-presidential-debate-full-transcript-mike-pence-and-kamala-harris/5920773002/
Robinson, Kali,2021, What Is the Iran Nuclear Deal? see to: https://www. cfr.org/backgrounder/what-iran-nuclear-deal
Russell,Walter,2020, Transcript: Dialogues on American Foreign Policy and World Affairs: Discussing the Future of U.S. Foreign Policy and National Security with Jake Sullivan, see to: https://www.hudson.org/research/ 16024-transcript-dialogues-on-american-foreign-policy-and-world-affairs-discussing-the-future-of-u-s-foreign-policy-and-national-security-with-jake-sullivan
Schultz, David,2019, American Foreign Policy in the Age of Donald Trump, Lithuanian Annual Strategic Review; Vilnius Vol. 17, Iss. 1
THE FUTURE OF US POLICY TOWARD CHINA Recommendations for the Biden administration,2020, see to: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/ uploads/2020/11/Future-U.S.-policy-toward-China-v8.pdf
Torrance, Stephens,2016, Nobel Neocolonialism: U.S. West Asian, North and East African Foreign Policy Under the Obama Administration, CreateSpace.
United States of America: 2020 presidential election, House of commons library, Briefing paper, 19 january 2021. See to: https:// researchbriefings. files. parliament.uk/documents/CBP-9115/CBP-9115.pdf
Walker, Nigel,2021, United States of America: 2020 presidential election, Commons Library Briefing, 19 January 2021, see to: https:// research briefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/CBP-9115/CBP-9115.pdf
Younis, Mohamed,2019, Do Americans Want War With Iran?, see to: https://news.gallup.com/poll/265640/americans-war-iran.aspx